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Kingdom of Abyssinia

The Kingdom of Abyssinia was founded in the 13th century CE and, transforming itself into the Ethiopian Empire via a series of military conquests, lasted until the 20th century CE. It was established by the kings of the Solomonid dynasty who, claiming descent from no less a figure than the Bible’s King Solomon, would rule in an unbroken line throughout the state’s long history. A Christian kingdom which spread the faith via military conquest and the establishment of churches and monasteries, its greatest threat came from the Muslim trading states of East Africa and southern Arabia and the migration of the Oromo people from the south. The combination of its rich Christian heritage, the cult of its emperors and the geographical obstacles presented to invaders meant that the Ethiopian Empire would be the only African states never to be formally colonized by a European power.   

Ancient trade route of Ethiopia

The state of Aksum was located in the Ethiopian highlands, where local society developed in the northern end of the central highlands, before gradually moving south. Aksumite society engaged in pastoralism, harvested cereals, coffee and cotton, exploited its iron industry through its major port of Adulis on the Red Sea. Aksum engaged in extensive trade networks across the Mediterranean and Red Sea, and into the Indian Ocean. Aided by its coins minted in gold, silver and copper, Aksum flourished during the collapse of the Roman Empire and even extended its influence in South Arabia with military garrisons in the region. Inscriptions on its coins and steles provide documentation for the rise and decline of Aksum, which rose to prominence in the first century, marked by the beginnings of its overseas trade, and deteriorated in the eighth century, owing to the rise of Islam in the region. For the early history of Aksum and its trade terminus Adulis, we also have external reports, none more important—due to its early description of Adulis—than the Periplus Maris Erythraei (“Voyage around the Red Sea”). The Periplus was composed by an anonymous Greek-speaking Egyptian merchant or sailor around the middle of the first century CE. Designed as a short sailing manual for traders, the author described the maritime trade routes from Egypt to Adulis and down the coast of East Africa.

Ethioians Hair Style

There are different types of hair styles in Ethiopia. The two main are SHURUBA for girls and AFRO for boys. These you can say a typical African style and these are divided in verity of styles mainly divided in the different tribes then again by the different ages.

  • Different styles in their age

Sheruba: (21 and above) Sheruba is braiding the hair in different sizes and styles

Sadula: age between 15 and 21)Teenager maidens shave their hair on the top of the head and leave the outlying fringes unshaven. The shaven hair is allowed to grow only after the women have matured and married. The first growth of this shaven hair after marriage is called Endermamit or Fesesay The hair that has not been shaved, that is, the outlying fringe, is either braided or combed into an Afro. The Sadula is practiced mostly by the Amharas and Tigreans and some other tribes of Ethiopia.

Gamay: ( age between 7 and 14)The Gamay is similar to a Sadula hairstyle used by girls.

Zur Gamay: age between 14 and 18) This hairstyle is another name for Gamay Sheruba worn by young unmarried girls. It is also similar to the hairstyle known as Sadula.

Gamay Sheruba: This hairstyle is a Sadula hairstyle using braids. Unmarried girls shave the top part of the head and braid the remaining hair surrounding the bald spot.

Endermamit: (age between 14 and 21 )When a young virgin girl with a Sadula hairstyle has married, the one year growth of new hair from the previously shaved area is called Endermamit. It is customary to comb this new growth with great respect.

Fesesay: (age between 18 and 25) This term is identical with Endermamit. When a young virgin girl with a Sadula hairstyle has married, the one year growth of hair that she combs and takes care of is called Fesesay.


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